The condition of having kidney stones is termed  nephrolithiasis. Having stones at any location in the urinary  tract is referred to as urolithiasis

Kidney stones are one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. Kidney stones or renal stones are gravel-like collections of chemicals that may appear in any area of the urinary system, They may be small or large, single or multiple.

Urinary stones or calculi are concretions formed by the crystallization of one or more substances normally found in the urine. Most often these stones are formed within the kidney and travel down the ureter towards the bladder, causing a sudden sharp intense pain along the flank which radiates towards the groin. The pain is often intermittent and escalating in nature, and is associated with nausea and vomiting. This complex of symptoms is commonly referred to as “renal colic”. Patients often note difficulty finding a comfortable position and therefore move continuously to try to “shake off” this pain.


a. Fluid intake: less fluid intake or strenuous exercise without adequate fluid replacement increases the risk of kidney stones.

b. Obstruction: Obstruction to the flow of urine can also lead to stone formation.

c. Climate: may be a risk factor for kidney stone development, since residents of hot and dry areas are more likely to become dehydrated and susceptible to stone formation.

d. Infection: Kidney stones can also result from infection in the urinary tract; these are known as struvite or infection stones.

e. Medical conditions responsible for developing kidney stones:

– Gout results in chronically increased amount of uric acid in the blood and urine and can lead to the formation of uric acid stones.

– Hypercalciuria (high calcium in the urine), In this condition, too much calcium is absorbed from food and excreted into the urine, where it may form calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate stones.

Kidney diseases: renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria and hyperoxaluria.

– Diabetes

– Hyperparathyroidism

– High blood pressure (hypertension).

– Inflammatory bowel disease

f. Medicine: Diuretics, calcium-containing antacids, and the protease inhibitor indinavir (Crixivan), a drug used to treat HIV infection.

g. Dietary factors

– Inadequate fluid intake predisposes to dehydration, which is a      major risk factor for stone formation.

– High intake of animal protein,

– High-salt diet,

– Excessive sugar consumption,

– Excessive vitamin D supplementation,

– Excessive intake of oxalate-containing foods such as spinach.

– Low levels of dietary calcium intake may alter the calcium-oxalate balance and result in the increased excretion of oxalate and a propensity to form oxalate stones.


The symptoms of renal colic alone are often highly suggestive of the passage of a kidney stone. Most calculi originate within the kidney and proceed distally, creating various degrees of urinary obstruction as they become lodged in narrow areas, including the ureteropelvic junction, pelvic brim, and ureterovesical junction. Location and quality of pain are related to position of the stone within the urinary tract. Severity of pain is related to the degree of obstruction, presence of ureteral spasm, and presence of any associated infection. So the symptomatic presentation of renal calculi has been described below:

– Flank pain or back pain, which may be on one or both sides, progressive, severe, colicky (spasm-like) , may radiate or move to lower in flank, pelvis, groin, genitals.

–  Nausea, vomiting

– Painful urination

– Urinary frequency or urgency is increased (persistent urge to urinate)

– Blood in the urine

– Rarely, a patient reports positional urinary retention (obstruction precipitated by standing), which is due to the ball-valve effect of a large stone located at the bladder outlet.

– Fever with chills in the case of infection



– Fluid intake should he high at all times. Fluids should be taken at bed time so that nocturia will occur. This will prevent dehydration.

– Avoidance of milk, cheese and great deal of calcium should be   advised. If renal function is satisfactory, sodium cellulose phosphate 5 g T.D.S. with meals should be prescribed to reduce calcium absorption.

– Reduce the amount of salt you eat Reducing the salt (sodium) in the diet helps to reduce the amount of calcium in the urine that in turn reduces the tendency for calcium stone formation. Dietary salt reduction is best accomplished by not adding salt to your food and by avoiding those high sodium foods such as processed meats, salty convenience foods (regular, boxed or canned soups, noodle or rice mixes) and salty snacks.

– Be sure your diet contains adequate amounts of calcium several years ago it was believed that dietary calcium should be restricted in patients with calcium kidney stones. At least two scientific studies now show that the inclusion of at least two servings of high calcium foods per day in the diet actually reduces the rate at which calcium-containing kidney stones form. People who form calcium oxalate stones should include 800 mg of calcium in their diet every day, not only for kidney stone prevention but also to maintain bone density. A cup of low-fat milk contains 300 mg of calcium. Other dairy products such as yogurt are also high in calcium.

– Avoid those foods which can increase the amount of oxalate or uric acid in the urine Oxalic acid or oxalate is found mostly in foods from plants. But only a few have been shown to increase the amount of oxalate in urine. They are rhubarb, spinach, strawberries, chocolate, wheat bran, nuts, beets, and tea. Avoiding these foods may help reduce the amount of oxalate in the urine. Eating foods containing calcium also reduces oxalate in the urine. Calcium binds oxalate in the digestive tract so it is not excreted into the urine.

– Vitamin C The body converts vitamin C into oxalate that increases kidney stone formation. Therefore it should not be more than 500 milligrams each day for people who have had kidney stones.

– Sugar and animal protein It has been found that too much of these may also aggravate the development of calcium or calcium oxalate stones. Some sugars occur naturally in foods and that is not a concern. However, people who get kidney stones may benefit from avoiding packaged foods with large amounts of added sugars, and from reducing sugars added in food preparation and at the table. Meats and other animal proteins – such as eggs and fish – contain purines, which break down into uric acid in the urine. Foods that are especially rich in purines include organ meats, such as liver. Nondairy animal proteins may also increase the risk of calcium stones by increasing the excretion of calcium and reducing the excretion of citrate (citrate prevents kidney stones) into the urine. Therefore, people who tend to develop kidney stones should avoid eating more protein than the body needs each day.

– Insoluble Fiber is the indigestible part of plants. There are two types of fiber: soluble (dissolves in water) and insoluble. Both provide important functions in the body, but it is insoluble fiber (found in wheat, rye, barley, and rice) that may help to reduce calcium in the urine. It combines with calcium in the intestines, so that the calcium is excreted with the stool instead of through the kidneys. Insoluble fiber also speeds up movement of substances through the intestine, so there will be less time for calcium to be absorbed.

Homeopathic symptoms and treatment

Homeopathic remedies are prescribed on the basis of symptoms rather than conditions, as each case of a particular illness can manifest differently in different people. There are many symptoms which can be effectively treated by homeopathy few symptoms are given below. If your symptoms are matching to any of the symptoms given below, it can be cured mail the disease and symptom number at to know your medicine.

1. Renal colic, kidney stones. Violent tenesmus of the bladder, with urgent urination, urgency constant suppressed menstruation, ineffective, painful, better sitting, standing and walking worse, have to hurry or urine will escapes.

2. Stitches and pain in the kidneys, but on the left side. Kidney stones or bladder gravel. Retention of urine, nervous or hysterical when he begins to urinate, violent pressure in the bladder as if it would burst and excessive desires, but can only urinate sitting and leaning backwards. Involuntary urination when walking, coughing or sneezing, and night.

3. Kidney pain from 4 PM to 8 PM. Renal or lumbar pain that occurs before every time he goes to urinate, and ceases when urine comes out, disappears completely after. The predominant renal colic on the right side, down the ureters and is cutting or stabbing, in the sediment of the urine is an abundance of reddish gravel, brick dust, , or reddish yellow crystals, the sediment not adherent. Polyuria clear urine copious night, little by day, dark, with a greasy film, with blood, frothy, milky, turbid and fetid.

4. Left kidney intense pain travels down the ureter. But his biggest problem is a severe acute dysuria usually appears between 3 and 6 am (improving day), with constant desire to urinate every fifteen minutes, and should make violent efforts to urinate, with violent pains in the bladder they do cry, forced to kneel leaning forward and leaning his forehead on the floor, and in this position, after 10 to 20 minutes and great effort and sweat, urine starts leaking out and interrupted with sharp burning pains and tearing in the glans. The position can also be supported, in addition to the knees, hands. Painful acute retention of urine in prostatic hypertrophy. Dribbling of urine after urination.

5. Renal stones, pain worse from motion, abundant and acidic urine, and urinary frequency. Nocturnal enuresis, worse from cold humid, with abundant urination and acid. Women can not hold their urine.

6. Kidney stones, urinary frequency and hematuria with dark, clotted blood, and sometimes, with pain in the spermatic cord (worse by shaking or walking). Burning urination and strong smelling. Polyuria with frequency, with sediment red brick dust.

7. Severe renal colic, sharp pains in the ureters and kidneys, which improve after urination, “with the feeling that pass load and with a great desire to eat ice”. Nocturnal enuresis: nightly eliminates enormous amounts of urine, dark.

8. Pungent urine, dark or dark brown, smelling strongly like horse urine, disgusting, very strong, or putrid, offensive; with sediment mucous, purulent, white or red. The smell pervades the room and it permeates clothes.

9. Cutting, or dull and deep, in the kidneys. Urolithiasis. Chronic nephritis. Anuria. Intense burning in the bladder and urethra, worse when urinating.

10. Bubbling pains in the kidneys, severe pain in the kidneys, pains radiating or extending to the testes. Pains may radiate, change locations or emanate from the small of the back.

11. Right side renal calculi, must strain to urinate. Urine burning hot

12. Right sided pain, can pass urine only when standing. Pain in urethra extending to abdomen.

13. Urine strong smelling. Pain suddenly changes locality.

14. Urine dark, sour, foul or strong odor,white sediment in urine.

15. Left sided pain, vomiting with pain,blood in the urine.

16. Pain in bladder extending to testes or spermatic cord. Right sided kidney pain.

17.  Constant urging to urinate with great straining. Pain extending down thighs.

18. Blood in the urine, uric acid calculi, urine suppressed.

19. Tenesmus, Constant desire to urinate. Burning, scalding cutting pains. Blood in the urine. Urine passes drop by drop.

20. Frequent urge to urinate. However; small quantities of urine are passed every time the feeling occurs. Soreness in the stomach and a burning sensation while passing urine, especially during the last couple of drops. Thirstlessness

21. Urge to urinate is generally very intense and frequent, and the bladder is very sensitive. A form of writhing or cramping is felt in bladder area and there is a passage of colored urine.

22. Burning or cramping and an itching sensation in the genital area when patient feel the need to urinate.

23. Oedematous swellings of the face and extremities, paleness, ascites, oedema pulmonum, pains in the head, back and limbs. Albuminuria, scanty urine and frequent Micturition. The urine is heavily charged with albumen and contains blood corpuscles. The oedema appears quickly, there is general dropsy and suppression of urine and perhaps an eruption of the skin like a nettle rash. The patient is drowsy, apathetic and has a bruised feeling all over.

24. Pain in the back of a dull character extending along the ureters. The great characteristic of dark smoky urine will be present. The urine is bloody and albuminous. Urine is passed in drops and is mixed with blood, with much urging.

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